Setting the scene

Most fraud trials benefit from eight key graphic types.
This is because most fraud investigations will embody similar types of evidential information.

Key graphics

The eight key litigation graphics

Effective graphics are living, breathing entities that develop pursuant to ongoing discussions between the analyst, the case team & counsel.

 

Defendant profiles

  • The Jury needs to be introduced to the characters featuring in the trial and be able to distinguish between, sometimes numerous, seemingly indistinguishable individuals.
  • This graphic was used to compare suspects; there levels of involvement and likelihood of successful extradition and charge.
  • Defendant profiles can contain any defendant specific information pertinent to the case.
  • CCTV footage (redacted here) used to identify and charge over thirty individuals
  • Defendant profiles

    The Jury needs to be introduced to the characters featuring in the trial and be able to distinguish between, sometimes numerous, seemingly indistinguishable individuals.
  • Defendant profiles

    This graphic was used to compare suspects; there levels of involvement and likelihood of successful extradition and charge.
  • Defendant profiles

    Defendant profiles can contain any defendant specific information pertinent to the case.
  • Defendant profiles

    CCTV footage (redacted here) used to identify and charge over thirty individuals

Organisation charts

  • A simple illustration the Jury can refer back to is invaluable. For more complex cases, with deliberately convoluted structures or a phoenix company, it is essential.
  • Explaining the key players in a trading company.
  • Explaining the key players in a take-over, including the companies legal representatives and codenames provided to help prevent the leaking of price-sensitive information.
  • A simple organisation chart and timeline combination. This shows the positions held at a set point in time.
  • Organisation charts

    A simple illustration the Jury can refer back to is invaluable. For more complex cases, with deliberately convoluted structures or a phoenix company, it is essential.
  • Organisation charts

    Explaining the key players in a trading company.
  • Organisation charts

    Explaining the key players in a take-over, including the companies legal representatives and codenames provided to help prevent the leaking of price-sensitive information.
  • Organisation charts

    A simple organisation chart and timeline combination. This shows the positions held at a set point in time.

Processes

  • Usually in the form of a flow chart. They explain what happened; how it should have worked compared to how it did. It simplifies complex, often technical processes in a conceptual layout.
  • Illustrating how many different individuals made request to change the LIBOR, highlighting the same key playings
  • The Jury needed to understand the basic principles of aluminium smelting in order to understand the fraudulent activity surrounding various stages of the process.
  • One of nine, animated tendering process graphics, each one following the same basic structure to promote a subconscious familiarity and data retention.
  • A beautifully simple graphic evidencing the corrupt payments between defendants
  • A simplified explanation of two ways the FIX is calculated
  • Processes

    Usually in the form of a flow chart. They explain what happened; how it should have worked compared to how it did. It simplifies complex, often technical processes in a conceptual layout.
  • Processes

    Illustrating how many different individuals made request to change the LIBOR, highlighting the same key playings
  • Processes

    The Jury needed to understand the basic principles of aluminium smelting in order to understand the fraudulent activity surrounding various stages of the process.
  • Processes

    One of nine, animated tendering process graphics, each one following the same basic structure to promote a subconscious familiarity and data retention.
  • Processes

    A beautifully simple graphic evidencing the corrupt payments between defendants
  • Processes

    A simplified explanation of two ways the FIX is calculated

Timelines

  • This timeline demonstrates an investor's purchase dates in correlation with the defendant's ownership of the land they were selling. It also highlights the levels of cold calling harassment he received.
  • Maps should only show relevant, geographical information, without any other distracting map data. Never assume Jurors know where somewhere is, always show them to prevent their minds from wondering.
  • Whilst this very busy graphics contains a lot of data (partly redacted), the Jury only be instructed to focus on the coloured boxes that indicate the combination of three different companies, selling shares to investors
  • This animated timeline would be fed, piece by piece to the Jury, enabling them to digest each event individually and preventing them from running ahead of Counsel's explanation.
  • Geographical movements are mapped by mobile phone billing and email log-in records. Despite so much of data, the viewer only needs to recognise the single day they are not in the same location to see that their claims not to know each other are highly unlikely
  • This timeline demonstrates fictional, backdated correspondence and genuine correspondence. Other data show their financial position and activities which are at odds with what they are telling the Court.
  • Timelines

    This timeline demonstrates an investor's purchase dates in correlation with the defendant's ownership of the land they were selling. It also highlights the levels of cold calling harassment he received.
  • Timelines

    Maps should only show relevant, geographical information, without any other distracting map data. Never assume Jurors know where somewhere is, always show them to prevent their minds from wondering.
  • Timelines

    Whilst this very busy graphics contains a lot of data (partly redacted), the Jury only be instructed to focus on the coloured boxes that indicate the combination of three different companies, selling shares to investors
  • Timelines

    This animated timeline would be fed, piece by piece to the Jury, enabling them to digest each event individually and preventing them from running ahead of Counsel's explanation.
  • Timelines

    Geographical movements are mapped by mobile phone billing and email log-in records. Despite so much of data, the viewer only needs to recognise the single day they are not in the same location to see that their claims not to know each other are highly unlikely
  • Timelines

    This timeline demonstrates fictional, backdated correspondence and genuine correspondence. Other data show their financial position and activities which are at odds with what they are telling the Court.

Instruments

  • All correspondence including email, text and phone calls, online chat rooms, social media, surveillance logs, audio and video, certificates, trading and company house information can all be used to good effect.
  • This animated process graphic unfurls, one piece at a time with hyperlinks to each document
  • CCTV footage (redacted here) used to identify and charge over thirty individuals
  • Evidence taken from unsecured social media sites with a view to contradicting the defendant's continued claims of suicidal depression preventing him from being fit to be tried.
  • Visual representation supporting a piece of audio evidence. The visuals show who is calling who, when and for how long.
  • Instruments

    All correspondence including email, text and phone calls, online chat rooms, social media, surveillance logs, audio and video, certificates, trading and company house information can all be used to good effect.
  • Instruments

    This animated process graphic unfurls, one piece at a time with hyperlinks to each document
  • Instruments

    CCTV footage (redacted here) used to identify and charge over thirty individuals
  • Instruments

    Evidence taken from unsecured social media sites with a view to contradicting the defendant's continued claims of suicidal depression preventing him from being fit to be tried.
  • Instruments

    Visual representation supporting a piece of audio evidence. The visuals show who is calling who, when and for how long.

Maps

  • Maps can be used to illustrate locations of defendants, companies, accounts, investors, land ownership right down to desk locations in a traders office filled with price sensitive information.
  • An animated graphic illustrating, step by step, the complex detail of a land-banking scheme
  • Demonstrating the proximity of the defendant in relation to the price sensitive information and conversations, for an insider-dealing case
  • Manually creating a replica of the Limehouse Tunnel featuring every piece of foad furniture and safety device
  • Maps should only show relevant, geographical information, without any other distracting map data. Never assume Jurors know where somewhere is, always show them to prevent their minds from wondering.
  • Maps

    Maps can be used to illustrate locations of defendants, companies, accounts, investors, land ownership right down to desk locations in a traders office filled with price sensitive information.
  • Maps

    An animated graphic illustrating, step by step, the complex detail of a land-banking scheme
  • Maps

    Demonstrating the proximity of the defendant in relation to the price sensitive information and conversations, for an insider-dealing case
  • Maps

    Manually creating a replica of the Limehouse Tunnel featuring every piece of foad furniture and safety device
  • Maps

    Maps should only show relevant, geographical information, without any other distracting map data. Never assume Jurors know where somewhere is, always show them to prevent their minds from wondering.

Charts

  • Often the most alienating graphics, they should be kept to a minimum only using essential data. Ideal to identify patterns during the investigation and to illustrate key points in court.
  • Explaining how a trader can drive up the foreign exchange share price
  • We had trading graphs showing the defendant buying shares just before a merger and cashing in straight after, however, they didn't illustrate the desperation to buy a flagging stock. This graph demonstrates this single aspect beautifully, with minimum fuss.
  • Charts

    Often the most alienating graphics, they should be kept to a minimum only using essential data. Ideal to identify patterns during the investigation and to illustrate key points in court.
  • Charts

    Explaining how a trader can drive up the foreign exchange share price
  • Charts

    We had trading graphs showing the defendant buying shares just before a merger and cashing in straight after, however, they didn't illustrate the desperation to buy a flagging stock. This graph demonstrates this single aspect beautifully, with minimum fuss.

Benefits

  • The Jury's favourite graphic type and the one they pay most attention to. Highly effective when demonstrating the disparity between low earnings and a luxurious lifestyle.
  • The Jury's favourite graphic type and the one they pay most attention to. Highly effective when demonstrating the disparity between low earnings and a luxurious lifestyle.
  • This benefits pie chart provides a breakdown of the defendants' alleged proceeds of crime and follows on from an overall money flow, showing the journey of investors funds to each defendant.
  • Benefits

    The Jury's favourite graphic type and the one they pay most attention to. Highly effective when demonstrating the disparity between low earnings and a luxurious lifestyle.
  • Benefits

    The Jury's favourite graphic type and the one they pay most attention to. Highly effective when demonstrating the disparity between low earnings and a luxurious lifestyle.
  • Benefits

    This benefits pie chart provides a breakdown of the defendants' alleged proceeds of crime and follows on from an overall money flow, showing the journey of investors funds to each defendant.

From source to solution

A walk through the process

A draft graphic will go through countless iterations before its final version.
Below are draft examples, from original source data to final solution.

Intimidating source data

  • Raw source data taken from Bloomberg trading software
  • Data mapping to see if different methods highlight anything useful
  • Counsel specifically requested the data in a table. It was formatted to resemble the overall timeline graphic, mirroring certain events in recognisable ways despite the completely different structure
  • A simplified graph was mapped by hand to remove any unnecessary dates to enable such a long period to fit on one page. Essential data was added and spatial enhancements made to make it easier to look at. This data conveys no obvious message
  • Solution - a user friendly graph with the minimum data and an easily identifiable message for the Jury. A separate area of necessary detail required by the court is present but can be looked at in conjunction or ignored completely
  • Source to solution

    Intimidating source data
    Raw source data taken from Bloomberg trading software
  • Source to solution

    Intimidating source data
    Data mapping to see if different methods highlight anything useful
  • Source to solution

    Intimidating source data
    Counsel specifically requested the data in a table. It was formatted to resemble the overall timeline graphic, mirroring certain events in recognisable ways despite the completely different structure
  • Source to solution

    Intimidating source data
    A simplified graph was mapped by hand to remove any unnecessary dates to enable such a long period to fit on one page. Essential data was added and spatial enhancements made to make it easier to look at. This data conveys no obvious message
  • Source to solution

    Intimidating source data
    Solution - a user friendly graph with the minimum data and an easily identifiable message for the Jury. A separate area of necessary detail required by the court is present but can be looked at in conjunction or ignored completely

Visual analysis training

Learn the basic techniques to improve your visual representation of data

“People remember 10% of what they hear and 85% of what they see and hear”

Timothy A Piganelli